UEB Rulebook

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Follow print for the use of punctuation except for the specific provisions in the Punctuation rules which follow.


Only one blank cell follows punctuation in braille even when print uses more space, e.g. at the end of a sentence.


Place a grade 1 symbol indicator before a punctuation mark which appears in a position where it would be read as a contraction.

Refer to: 7.6.4 for an opening nonspecific quotation mark.


A string of lower punctuation marks may be surrounded by space.


Follow print spacing of the dash. However, when the spacing in print is indeterminate or inconsistent, space the dash from adjacent words, unless it is clear that the dash indicates omission of part of a word.


When an unspaced dash indicates an omission, do not separate it from the remainder of the symbols-sequence. In all other cases, a dash may be separated from what precedes or follows it at the beginning or end of a braille line.


Regardless of the length of the character in print, use one low line (underscore) .- in braille for each print dash below the line of type which indicates a blank to be filled in.

Refer to: Section 9, Typeforms, for information about underlining.


Represent a spaced hyphen in print with a spaced hyphen in braille.


When print uses two adjacent hyphens as a substitute for a dash (e.g. in typing or email), it is permissible to use a dash in braille. Use two hyphens when it is clear that two hyphens are intended, e.g. to represent two missing letters in a word. When in doubt, use two hyphens.


Follow print for the number of dots used in the ellipsis. When spacing in print is indeterminate or inconsistent, space the ellipsis from adjacent words, unless it is clear that it indicates the omission of part of a word.

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