UEB Rulebook

This is a glossary version of the rulebook that allows for automatic hyperlinking of the rules.

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Follow print for the use of the commercial at sign.


Follow print for the use of the copyright, registered and trademark signs. Usually the trademark sign appears raised from the baseline in print. This is not considered the superscript position.


Print uses crosses for a variety of purposes. Select the appropriate braille symbol based on the purpose of the cross.

Note: Use the letter "x" or "X" only when the cross has no mathematical or scientific meaning; for example: to represent a kiss.

Refer to: 3.3 for use of the dagger as a Latin or Christian cross (e.g. to signify death or a member of the clergy); and to 3.17 for the multiplication sign which is used to show dimensions, degree of magnification, and crosses between breeds of animals or between varieties of plants.



Follow print for the transcription of letters.

Refer to: Section 2.6, Terminology and General Rules, Section 5, Grade 1 Mode, Section 8, Capitalisation and Section 10, Contractions for more information.


Place a modifier before the letter it modifies in braille, irrespective of whether it appears above, below or overlaying the letter(s) in print. Whenever a transcriber-defined modifier is used, give the print symbol it represents in a transcriber's note or on a symbols page.


If an indicator is required immediately before a modified letter, place the indicator before the modifier.


Modifiers on letters do not terminate capitalised word mode.


A modified letter may not form part of a contraction.

Note: In words such as théâtre where the contraction for the is not used, the contraction for th can be used.


If a single modifier applies to more than one letter, enclose the modified letters in braille grouping indicators. Grade 1 indicators are not required for the braille grouping indicators since the modifier can not be followed by a contraction.


Where a modifier is shown in print without an associated letter, as in a dictionary entry or in instructional material, follow print.

Refer to: Sections 3.6 and 3.25, General Symbols and Indicators, for the caret and the tilde (swung dash); and Section 7.1, punctuation, for the solidus (forward slash) when these are separate characters rather than modifiers.

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