UEB Rulebook

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If the numerator or denominator is not entirely numeric as defined in 11.3.1, then the general fraction indicators should be used. Write the opening indicator, then the numerator expression, then the general fraction line symbol, then the denominator expression and finally the closing indicator.

Note: If an opening or closing fraction indicator appears within a grade 2 passage, it may need a grade 1 indicator.

Note: Both numerator and denominator may be any kind of expression whatever, including fractions of either simple numeric or general type.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Parts 6.4 and 6.5, for more examples of general fractions.


The scope of a level change indicator, that is, the symbol(s) affected by it, is the next "item". An item is defined as any of the following groupings:

• An entire number, i.e. the initiating numeric symbol and all succeeding symbols within the numeric mode thus established (which would include decimal points, commas and simple numeric fraction lines).

• An entire general fraction, enclosed in fraction indicators (Section 11.3).

• An entire radical expression, enclosed in radical indicators (Section 11.5).

• An arrow (Section 11.6).

• An arbitrary shape (Section 11.7).

• Any expression enclosed in matching pairs of round parentheses, square brackets or curly braces.

• Any expression enclosed in the braille grouping indicators.

If none of the foregoing apply, the item is the next individual symbol.


If a superscript or subscript appears within a grade 2 passage, it may need a grade 1 indicator.


When transcribing algebraic expressions involving superscripts, braille grouping symbols may be required.

Refer to: 11.4.1 for the definition of an item.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 7, Superscripts and Subscripts, (7.4, 7.5, 7.7, 7.8 and 7.9), for the treatment of superscripts or subscripts which are on multiple levels, left displaced, or directly above or below the item. Also for bars, dots, tildes etc that appear directly over or under items.


The expression inside the square root sign in print (the radicand) should be preceded by the open radical sign and followed by the close radical sign. The radicand itself may be any expression whatsoever, and may therefore contain radicals as well as other mathematical structures.

Note: If an open or close radical sign appears within a grade 2 passage, it may need a grade 1 indicator.


In print the radical index, if present, is printed above and to the left of the radical sign. This index is placed in braille as a superscript expression immediately following the opening radical symbol.


A simple arrow has a standard barbed tip at one end (like a v on its side, pointing away from the shaft). The shaft is straight and its length and thickness are not significant. These arrows are represented by an opening arrow indicator and the appropriate closing arrow indicator.

Arrows with non-standard shafts

Dots 25        single line shaft   

Dots 2356    double line shaft  

Dot 2            dotted line shaft  


All shaft symbols can be elongated by repetition, with one cell for a short shaft, two for a medium shaft and three for a long shaft. The shaft symbols are placed between the opening and closing arrow indicators.

Arrows with non-standard tips

Dots 1235 regular barb, full, in line of direction

Dots 2456 regular barb, full, counter to line of direction


If an arrow has unusual tips, decide which is the head before you choose the direction of your closing indicator.

Note: The tip(s) and shaft segment(s) are transcribed between the opening and closing indicators. These items are expressed in logical order, that is starting with the arrow tail and progressing towards the head, even if that runs counter to the physical order (as in the case of a left pointing arrow).


Less common arrows can also be indicated in braille.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 13, Arrows, for the treatment of:

• arrows with shafts which are diagonal, curved or dotted;

• arrows with tips which are half barbed, curved or straight; and

• equilibrium arrows that occur in Chemistry.

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