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If a shape is followed by a space then no termination symbol is
needed. If however the shape symbol is followed by punctuation, or
unspaced from a following symbol, then the shape terminator must
The description within transcriber-defined shapes should be a short
series of initials or a single grade 1 word. They should not be used if
the print symbol is already covered elsewhere in the code. The
definitions of all shape symbols should be available to the reader in
either a transcriber's note or on a special symbols page.
The physical enclosure indicator signals a combining of the item just
prior (the outer symbol) with the item immediately following it (the
inner symbol), where "item" is as defined in Section 11.4.1.
Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 14.3, of Shape and
Composite Symbols, for superposition, horizontal juxtaposition and
vertical juxtaposition of print symbols.
When a print grouping symbol stretches across several lines of print,
use the appropriate enlarged grouping symbol in braille. Repeat the
grouping symbols directly under each other on each line. Use blank
lines before and after such arrangements for clarity.
The general UEB principles on the choice of single letter, word or
passage mode apply; in particular, a capital terminator should not be
used within a two-letter chemical element symbol. Using single
capital indicators for chemical formulae provides a uniform
appearance to the braille; nevertheless, there may be a clear
advantage in using capital passage mode in some cases. Letters
representing chemical elements should never be contracted.
Follow the provisions of Sections 4.2 and 4.3, Letters and Their
Modifiers for the treatment of ligatured letters and the macron.
Use uncontracted braille for Old English, that is, English written
before about 1100.
In Middle English (c. 1100 to c. 1450) the use of contractions is
optional. When contractions are used, have regard for spelling
Use contracted braille for Early Modern English (c. 1450 to c. 1650)
having regard for spelling variations.
A foreign language is any natural or artificial language in use now or in the past other than English. It may be written in Roman or nonRoman script. Any form of English transliterated in non-Roman script is also to be treated as foreign.