Use the modifiers listed above only in foreign language words and phrases in English context intended primarily for leisure reading, in English words or in anglicised words and phrases.
Where a significant knowledge of a foreign language is presupposed or is being taught, use signs from the indigenous foreign language braille code.
Refer to: Section 13, Foreign Language, for more guidance.
Use the modifiers in this section for linguistic accents and diacritics only and not for modifiers in mathematics or for symbols in computer programming even if their appearance is visually similar in print.
Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material.
Place the ligature indicator between two letters which are joined to each other in print. Various methods are used in print to join letters, including but not limited to cross bars between the letters, tie bars or slurs over or under the letters, and letters joined together and printed as one symbol. Describe the method used in a transcriber's note or on the symbols page.
The ligature indicator is considered a modifier. It does not terminate capitalised word mode and a letter joined to another by a ligature may not form part of a contraction.
An indicator before the first letter joined to another by a ligature applies only to the first letter. When an indicator is required for the second letter, place the indicator before the ligature indicator.
When a modifier is required for a letter joined to another by a ligature, place the modifier immediately before the letter to which it applies. When a single modifier applies to both letters, use braille grouping indicators.
Do not use the ligature indicator for the ae and oe diphthongs unless the letters are joined as ligatures in print.
Use the ligature indicator only when the ligature has meaning and not when it is merely an aspect of the print font being used.
Follow print for the transcription of these pronunciation symbols.
The eng and schwa are also symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet. When the symbols appear in phonetic material, use IPA Braille to transcribe the phonetic text.