Tuesday, September 22, 2020, 7:05 AM
Site: UEBOT
Course: UEBOT (UEBOT)
Glossary: UEB Rulebook
1

1.1.1

Braille is a tactile method of reading and writing for blind people developed by Louis Braille (1809-1852), a blind Frenchman. The braille system uses six raised dots in a systematic arrangement with two columns of three dots, known as a braille cell. By convention, the dots in the left column are numbered 1, 2 and 3 from top to bottom and the dots in the right column are numbered 4, 5 and 6 from top to bottom.


1.1.2

The six dots of the braille cell are configured in 64 possible combinations (including the space which has no dots present). The 63 braille characters with dots are grouped in a table of seven lines. This table is used to establish "braille order" for listing braille signs.


Line 1 is formed with characters in the upper part of the cell, using dots 1, 2, 4 and 5.

Line 2 adds dot 3 to each of the characters in Line 1.

Line 3 adds dots 3 and 6 to each of the characters in Line 1.

Line 4 adds dot 6 to each of the characters in Line 1.

Line 5 repeats the dot configurations of Line 1 in the lower part of the cell, using dots 2, 3, 5 and 6.

Line 6 is formed with characters using dots 3, 4, 5 and 6.

Line 7 is formed with characters in the right column of the cell, using dots 4, 5 and 6.
















1.1.3

An individual may write braille by hand either using a slate and stylus to push dots out from the back of the paper working from right to left or using a mechanical device called a brailler. A person may also use an embosser to reproduce an electronic braille file. These methods all produce embossed braille on hardcopy paper.


1.1.4

A person may read an electronic braille file by using a refreshable braille display attached to his/her computer. This employs pins which raise and lower to form the braille characters.


1.1.5

Originally developed to represent the French language, braille has been adapted for English and many other languages.


1.1.6

Braille is used to represent all subject matter, including literature, mathematics, science and technology. Louis Braille developed the system which is used worldwide today for representing music.


1.2.1

Unified English Braille (UEB) is a system of English braille which represents all subjects except music.


1.2.2

The purpose of UEB is to allow the reader to understand without ambiguity what symbols are being expressed by a given braille text.


1.2.3

The primary transcribing rule is to produce braille that, when read, yields exactly the original print text (apart from purely ornamental aspects).


1.2.4

A print symbol has one braille equivalent in UEB. Use the braille sign for that print symbol regardless of the subject area.


1.2.5

In UEB the 64 braille characters including the space are designated as being either a prefix or a root. There are 8 prefixes: Dots 3456 plus the braille characters formed from the dots in the right column of the cell, that is the characters from Line 7 of the table in section 1.1.2 above. The other 56 braille characters are roots.


1.2.6

The last two braille characters in the table Dots 56 and Dot 6 are special prefixes. A special prefix may be used in combination with another special prefix to form a braille sign. Such braille signs are used only as indicators.


1.2.7

Any other braille sign in UEB is constructed from a root or from a root plus one or more prefixes.


1.3.1

Other forms of English braille write the wordsigns for "a", "and", "for", "of", "the" and "with" unspaced from one another.


1.3.2

Other forms of English braille use the following contractions which are not used in UEB:

o'clock (shortform)

dd (groupsign between letters)

to (wordsign unspaced from following word)

into (wordsign unspaced from following word)

by (wordsign unspaced from following word)

ble (groupsign following other letters)

com (groupsign at beginning of word)

ation (groupsign following other letters)

ally (groupsign following other letters)


1.3.3

Other forms of English braille use the following punctuation signs which are not used in UEB:

opening and closing parentheses (round brackets)

closing square bracket

closing single quotation mark (inverted commas)

ellipsis

dash (short dash)

double dash (long dash)

opening square bracket


1.3.4

Other forms of English braille use the following composition signs (indicators) which are not used in UEB:

non-Latin (non-Roman) letter indicator

accent sign (nonspecific)

print symbol indicator

italic sign (for a word)

double italic sign (for a passage)


1.3.5

Other forms of English braille use the following general symbols which are not used in UEB:

pound sign (pound sterling)

paragraph sign

section sign

dollar sign

asterisk

end of foot

caesura

short or unstressed syllable

long or stressed syllable










1.3.6

Other forms of English braille use special codes to represent mathematics and science, computer notation and other technical or specialised subjects.


10.1.1

Use the alphabetic wordsign when the word it represents is "standing alone".

Refer to: Section 2.6, Terminology and General Rules, for the definition of "standing alone".

10.1.2

Use the alphabetic wordsign when the word it represents is followed by an apostrophe with the following letters: d, ll, re, s, t, ve, provided the resulting word is standing alone.

10.1.3

Preferably do not use the alphabetic wordsign when it is known, or can be determined from the text, or by reference to a standard dictionary, that the letters the wordsign represents are pronounced separately as in an acronym or abbreviation.

10.1.4

Do not use the alphabetic wordsign for a syllable of a word shown in syllables.

10.10.1

Where there is more than one possible choice in the use of groupsigns, make the selection based on the following principles, unless other rules apply.

10.10.10

Do not use the final groupsign or wordsign in a sequence that would otherwise consist wholly of lower signs. For the purposes of this rule, any type of quotation mark which may be present is considered to have only lower dots. When a capitals indicator or a capitals terminator is present, it is disregarded in determining whether to use a lower wordsign.

10.10.2

Give preference to the groupsign which causes a word to occupy fewer cells.

10.10.3

Give preference to the strong contractions provided their use does not waste space.

10.10.4

Use the lower groupsign for "be", "con" or "dis" in preference to other groupsigns when the letters it represents form the first syllable of a word.

10.10.5

With the exception of 10.10.4 above, use the strong groupsigns in preference to the lower groupsigns.

10.10.6

Use the final-letter groupsign for "ence" in the letters-sequences "encea", "enced" and "encer".

10.10.7

With the exception of 10.10.6 above, use the strong groupsigns and the lower groupsigns in preference to the initial-letter contractions and the final-letter groupsigns provided their use does not waste space. [Space-saving takes precedence over this rule.]

10.10.8

Select the groupsign which more nearly approximates the usual pronunciation of the word and which does not distort the form of the word.

10.10.9

Do not use a groupsign if its use would seriously distort the pronunciation or hinder the recognition of the word.

10.11.1

Do not use a groupsign which would bridge the words which make up an unhyphenated compound word. 

10.11.2

Do not use the strong groupsigns for "ch", "gh", "sh", "th", or "wh" or the strong contraction for "the" when the "h" is aspirated.

10.11.3

Use the lower groupsign for "be", "con" or "dis" when the letters it represents form the first syllable of a word.

10.11.4

Do not use the lower groupsign for "ea" when the letters "ea" bridge a prefix and the remainder of the word.

10.11.5

With the exceptions of 10.11.3 and 10.11.4 above, in general use a groupsign which bridges a prefix and the remainder of a word unless its use would hinder the recognition or pronunciation of the word. In particular, use the groupsigns for "ed", "en", "er", "of" and "st".

10.11.6

Use a groupsign when the addition of a prefix or the formation of an unhyphenated compound word provides an opportunity to use a groupsign not used in the original word, even if this alters the usual braille form of the original word. However, do not use the groupsign if its use would hinder the recognition or pronunciation of the word.

10.11.7

Generally, use a groupsign which bridges a word and its suffix unless its use would hinder the recognition or pronunciation of the word.

10.11.8

Use the lower groupsign for "ea", "bb", "cc", "ff" or "gg" at the end of a word when a suffix is added to the word or when it is the first word in an unhyphenated compound word.

10.11.9

Generally, use a groupsign which bridges a diphthong and an adjoining letter unless the diphthong is printed as a ligature.

10.12.1

Preferably, when it is known, or can be determined from the text or by reference to a standard dictionary, that letters within an abbreviation or acronym that would make up a contraction are pronounced separately as letters, do not use the contraction. In case of doubt, use the contraction.

10.12.10

 It is recognized that these guidelines relating to unknown pronunciation and syllabification may result in a particular word being contracted differently from one transcription to another.

10.12.11

 For lisped words, follow the basic contraction rules of Sections 10.1 to 10.11.

10.12.12

When punctuation, an indicator or a terminator occurs within a word, follow print and follow the basic contraction rules of Sections 10.1 to 10.11.

10.12.13

For a word with omitted letters, follow print and follow the rules of Section 5, Grade 1 Mode, and the basic contraction rules of Sections 10.1 to 10.11.

10.12.14

 For a word which shows speech hesitation, slurring or a vocal sound, follow the basic contraction rules of Sections 10.1 to 10.11.

10.12.15

For a word which is spelled, follow print and follow the rules of Section 5, Grade 1 Mode, and Section 8, Capitalisation.

10.12.16

 For a word which is stammered, follow print and the rules of Section 5, Grade 1 Mode, and the contraction rules of Sections 10.1 to 10.11.

10.12.17

For a word shown in syllables, follow the basic contraction rules of Sections 10.1 to 10.11. In particular, do not use an alphabetic wordsign for a syllable of a word shown in syllables.

10.12.2

Except as provided for in Rule 10.12.1, use contractions in abbreviations and acronyms, following the provisions of Section 5.7.1 and 5.7.2, Grade 1 Mode, as well as those of Section 10.1 to 10.11. 

10.12.3

Use contractions in computer material, such as email addresses, web sites, URLs, and filenames when it is embedded in regular text. Use uncontracted braille for computer material, such as computer program code which is displayed on separate lines, as well as any nearby excerpts from the program.
Refer to: Section 11.10.2, Technical Material.

10.12.4

For words in dialect, follow the contraction rules, 10.1 to 10.11.

10.12.5

For fragments of words, follow print and follow the contraction rules, 10.1 to 10.11.

10.12.6

Several contraction rules are based on the pronunciation and/or syllabification of the word. The Preference rule states that a contraction is not to be used when it would "hinder the recognition of the word". Sections 10.10.8 and 10.10.9 (the Preference rule) refer to the pronunciation of a word.
These rules represent best practices to be applied when the transcriber or proofreader is familiar with the word, when the required information about the word can be found in the text itself or when it is readily available in reference material at hand, such as a dictionary or braille word list.

10.12.7

When the word is unfamiliar and when the pronunciation or syllabification is unknown and difficult to ascertain, then it is permissible for contraction use to be based on the best judgment of the transcriber and/or proofreader. When translation software is being used, its contraction usage may be followed.

10.12.8

The guidelines relating to unknown pronunciation or syllabification apply in particular to proper names, abbreviations, acronyms, contrived words (as in science fiction) and anglicised foreign words.

10.12.9

In all cases, consistency within a transcription is required.

10.13

Note: It is preferable that transcribers do not divide words at the end of a braille line. Be aware that the braille authorities of some countries have specific guidelines on word division and such guidelines if available should be followed. However, when words do need to be divided at the end of a line, observe the following contraction rules.
Note: The examples in this section first give the appearance of the word in print (that is, undivided) followed by the appearance of the word in braille (that is, divided between braille lines). The two spaces following the hyphen represent the space at the end of the braille line.

10.13.1

Divide a word between syllables even if it means that a strong contraction or a groupsign is not used.

10.13.10

Do not use the lower groupsign for "ea", "bb", "cc", "ff", or "gg" when the letters it represents precede the hyphen or fall at the beginning of the braille line in a word divided between braille lines. 

10.13.11

Do not use a final-letter groupsign at the beginning of the braille line in a word divided between braille lines.

10.13.12

Do not divide a shortform between braille lines. For a word which includes letters which may be represented by a shortform, retain its usual braille form as to the use of the shortform when dividing the word between braille lines.

10.13.2

When a hyphenated word is divided at the existing hyphen, retain the normal braille form of the word. However, if this would result in a sequence consisting only of lower signs, do not use the lower wordsign.

10.13.3

Do not use the alphabetic wordsign or strong wordsign as part of a word divided between braille lines even when the word it represents appears to be standing alone.

10.13.4

Do not use the strong groupsign for "ing" when these letters fall at the beginning of the braille line in a word divided between braille lines.

10.13.5

In a word divided between braille lines, use any number of lower groupsigns and lower punctuation signs following one another provided the sequence includes a sign with upper dots. For purposes of this rule, when quotation marks are present, they are considered to have only lower dots. If there is not a sign with upper dots in the sequence, do not use the final lower groupsign.

10.13.6

Words joined by a dash may be divided at the end of a braille line either before or after the dash.

10.13.7

Do not use the lower wordsign for "be", "were", "his" or "was" before or after a dash, even when separated from the dash by the end of the braille line. 

10.13.8

Retain the braille form of the lower wordsign for "enough" or "in" in conjunction with the dash even when divided from the dash by the end of the braille line. However, it is also necessary to follow the lower sign rule. 

10.13.9

Do not use the lower groupsign for "be", "con" or "dis" when the letters it represents precede the hyphen or fall at the beginning of the braille line in a word divided between braille lines. 

10.2.1

Use the strong wordsign when the word it represents is "standing alone".

Refer to: Section 2.6, Terminology and General Rules, for the definition of "standing alone".

10.2.2

Use the strong wordsign when the word it represents is followed by an apostrophe with the following letters: d, ll, re, s, t, ve, provided that the resulting word is standing alone.

10.3.1

Use the strong contraction wherever the letters it represents occur unless other rules limit its use.

10.4.1

Use the strong groupsign wherever the letters it represents occur unless other rules limit its use.

10.4.2

When the use of a strong groupsign for "ch", "sh", "th", "wh", "ou" or "st" would be misread as a word, braille the letters individually.

Refer to: Section 10.2, for further explanation about using these signs to represent words.

10.4.3

Use the strong groupsign for "ing" wherever the letters it represents occur except at the beginning of a word.

Note: The beginning of a word is defined as the letters-sequence which follows a space, hyphen or dash and which may be preceded by the punctuation and indicator symbols listed in Section 2.6.2, Terminology and General Rules.

10.5.1

Use the lower wordsign for "be", "were", "his" or "was" when the word it represents is "standing alone". However, the lower wordsign is not used when in contact with any punctuation sign, including the hyphen and dash, that has only lower dots. For the purposes of this rule, any type of quotation mark which may be present is considered to have only lower dots. When a capitals indicator or a capitals terminator is present, it is disregarded in determining whether to use the lower wordsign.

Refer to: Section 2.6, Terminology and General Rules, for the definition of "standing alone".

10.5.2

Use the lower wordsign for "enough" when the word it represents is "standing alone". When a capitals indicator or a capitals terminator is present, it is disregarded in determining whether to use the lower wordsign. The lower wordsign is also used in the word "enough's".

Refer to: Section 2.6, Terminology and General Rules, for the definition of "standing alone".

10.5.3

Use the lower wordsign for "in" wherever the word it represents occurs provided that any sequence in which it occurs includes a sign with an upper dot. For the purposes of this rule, any type of quotation mark which may be present is considered to have only lower dots. When a capitals indicator or a capitals terminator is present, it is disregarded in determining whether to use the lower wordsign.

10.5.4

Use the lower wordsigns for "enough" and "in" with any number of lower punctuation signs provided the sequence includes a sign with upper dots. For the purposes of this rule, any type of quotation mark which may be present is considered to have only lower dots. If there is not a sign with upper dots in the sequence, do not use the final lower wordsign.

10.6.1

Use the lower groupsign for "be", "con" or "dis" when the letters it represents form the first syllable of a word.

10.6.10

Use any number of lower groupsigns and lower punctuation signs following one another provided the sequence includes a sign with upper dots and no other rules limit their use. For the purposes of this rule, any type of quotation mark which may be present is considered to have only lower dots. If there is not a sign with upper dots in the sequence, do not use the final lower groupsign.

10.6.2

Use the lower groupsign for "be", "con" or "dis" only at the beginning of a word and only when followed by a letter, a contraction, a modified letter or a ligatured letter.

Note: The beginning of a word is defined as the letters-sequence which follows a space, hyphen or dash and which may be preceded by the punctuation and indicator symbols listed in Section 2.6.2, Terminology and General Rules.

10.6.3

Do not use the lower groupsign for "be", "con", or "dis", when the letters it represents are followed by a capitals indicator or a capitals terminator.

10.6.4

Use the lower groupsign for "be", "con" or "dis" in an abbreviation when it is used in the unabbreviated form of the word and when it is followed by at least one other letter.

Note: If the unabbreviated form is not known and cannot be determined from the text or by reference to a standard dictionary, it is permissible to use the lower groupsign.

10.6.5

Use the lower groupsign for "ea", "bb", "cc", "ff", or "gg" when the letters it represents are both preceded and followed by a letter, a contraction, a modified letter or a ligatured letter unless other rules limit its use.

Note: These signs may also represent punctuation signs.

10.6.6

Do not use the lower groupsign for "ea", "bb", "cc", "ff", or "gg" when the letters it represents are preceded or followed by a capitals indicator or a capitals terminator.

10.6.7

Do not use the lower groupsign for "ea" when the letters "ea" bridge a prefix and the remainder of the word.

10.6.8

Use the lower groupsign for "en" or "in" wherever the letters it represents occur unless other rules limit its use.

10.6.9

To prevent it from being misread as "enough", do not use the lower groupsign for "en" when the letters "en" are "standing alone". Refer to: Section 2.6, Terminology and General Rules, for the definition of "standing alone".

10.7.1

Use the initial-letter contraction as a wordsign and wherever the letters it represents occur; except for the specific provisions given below; and unless other rules limit its use.

10.7.2

Use the initial-letter contraction for "upon", "these", "those", "whose" or "there" when its meaning as a whole word is retained.

10.7.3

Use the initial-letter contraction for "had" when the "a" is short, unless other rules limit its use.

10.7.4

Use the initial-letter contraction for "ever" when the stress is on the first "e" and when the letters are not preceded by "e" or "i".

10.7.5

Use the initial-letter contraction for "here" or "name" when the letters it represents are pronounced as one syllable unless other rules limit its use.

10.7.6

Use the initial-letter contraction for "one" when the letters it represents are pronounced as one syllable, or are in a word ending with the letters "oney", or are in the words "honest" or "monetary" and their derivatives. However, do not use the contraction when the letters "one" are preceded by the letter "o" or when other rules limit its use.

10.7.7

Use the initial-letter contraction for "some" when the letters it represents form a syllable of the basic word.

10.7.8

Use the initial-letter contraction for "time" when the letters it represents are pronounced the same as the word "time"

10.7.9

Use the initial-letter contraction for "under" except when the letters it represents are preceded by the vowels "a" or "o" and when the letters "un" form a prefix.

10.8.1

Use the final-letter groupsign when the letters it represents follow a letter, a contraction, a modified letter or a ligatured letter unless other rules limit its use.

10.8.2

Do not use the final-letter groupsign when the letters it represents follow a capitals indicator or a capitals terminator.

10.8.3

Do not use the final-letter groupsign for "ity" in the words: biscuity, dacoity, fruity, hoity-toity and rabbity.

10.8.4

Do not use the final-letter groupsign for "ness" when the feminine ending "ess" is added to a word ending in "en" or "in".

10.9.1

Use the shortform whenever the word it represents is "standing alone", regardless of meaning or pronunciation, and regardless of whether the word is used as an ordinary word or as a proper name. 

Refer to: Section 2.6, Terminology and General Rules, for the definition of "standing alone".

10.9.2

Use the shortform within a longer word provided that the longer word is "standing alone” (including any affix with an apostrophe) and that the longer word: (a) appears on the Shortforms List given in Appendix 1; or (b) satisfies the provisions of rule 10.9.3.

Note: Rule 10.9.2 encompasses words which are ordinary words, proper names and artificial or contrived words.

10.9.3

Use any of the ten shortforms listed below within a longer word that is not on the Shortforms List, provided the word is "standing alone" (including any affix with an apostrophe) and that any restrictions for the shortform are met.
(a) "braille" or "great": Use the shortform wherever it occurs.
(b) "children": Use the shortform provided that it is not followed by a vowel or "y".
(c) "blind", "first", "friend", "good", "letter", "little" or "quick": Use the shortform if it begins the word and is not followed by a vowel or "y".

10.9.4

Do not use a groupsign that would form part of the shortform.

10.9.5

Use a grade 1 symbol indicator before a letters-sequence that could be read as a shortform when "standing alone", or which occurs at the beginning of a longer letters-sequence.

10.9.6

Use a grade 1 word indicator before a longer sequence when a letters-sequence after the beginning could be read as a shortform. No other contractions may be used within the longer sequence.

11.1

This section presents the underlying rules governing the transcription of Technical Material. Some of the more common symbols are defined and simple examples of their use are included.

More detailed examples, lists of symbols and guidance covering a wider range and complexity of technical material are provided in the publication Unified English Braille, Guidelines for Technical Material.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material when dealing with works of a technical nature, such as educational material in the areas of Mathematics, Science and Computer Studies.


11.10.1

Computer notation is any text written in a formal syntax that is designed to allow computers to utilize the text directly for technical purposes related to the computer itself. Examples include computer programs written in procedural languages such as Java, C++, COBOL, and various "assembly" languages, nonprocedural scripting and markup languages such as XHTML, and data files prepared to meet the input requirements of specific programs. 

Note: 

• "Displayed" computer notation is presented in one or more lines separate from the surrounding literary text; 

• "inline" computer notation is presented within ordinary literary text, for example, an email address mentioned within a sentence.

11.10.2

A displayed computer program or program fragment should normally be transcribed in grade 1 braille; nearby excerpts from a program that is displayed in grade 1 should preferably also be in grade 1, for consistency. Other expressions, such as email addresses, web sites, URLs, filenames, and computer expressions not displayed on separate lines, should normally be transcribed in grade 2 braille.

Refer to: Section 2, Terminology and General Rules, for the "Standing Alone" rule; and also to Section 10, Contractions, for examples of email and web addresses. 

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 17, Computer Notation, for an example of a program fragment. 

11.2

Some common operation signs

+ plus

− minus (when distinguished from hyphen)

× times (multiplication cross)

÷ divided by (horizontal line between dots)

Some common comparison signs

= equals

< less than, or opening angle bracket

> greater than, or closing angle bracket

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 3, Signs of Operation, Comparison and Omission, for a full list of operation and comparison signs.


11.2.1

When isolated calculations appear in a literary text, the print spacing should be followed.


11.2.2

Follow print spacing in any technical notation where spacing is significant. If unsure of its significance, follow the print spacing as long as the presence or absence of spaces is clear. In cases where print spacing is indeterminate or known not to be significant, spacing should be used to reflect the structure of the expression or equation.

Note: In most common mathematics including algebra, operation signs should be unspaced on both sides but comparison signs should be spaced.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 1, General Principles, for more advice on the spacing of technical material.


11.3.1

A simple numeric fraction is one whose numerator and denominator contain only digits, decimal points, commas or separator spaces and whose fraction line in print is drawn between the two vertically (or nearly vertically) arranged numbers. In such a case a numeric fraction line symbol is used between the numerator and denominator and continues the numeric mode.


11.3.2

Mixed numbers should be treated as two unspaced numeric items.


11.3.3

The numeric fraction line is not used when the print is expressed linearly using an ordinary forward slash symbol. In such a case the same symbol is used as in print.


11.3.4

If the numerator or denominator is not entirely numeric as defined in 11.3.1, then the general fraction indicators should be used. Write the opening indicator, then the numerator expression, then the general fraction line symbol, then the denominator expression and finally the closing indicator.

Note: If an opening or closing fraction indicator appears within a grade 2 passage, it may need a grade 1 indicator.

Note: Both numerator and denominator may be any kind of expression whatever, including fractions of either simple numeric or general type.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Parts 6.4 and 6.5, for more examples of general fractions.


11.4.1

The scope of a level change indicator, that is, the symbol(s) affected by it, is the next "item". An item is defined as any of the following groupings:

• An entire number, i.e. the initiating numeric symbol and all succeeding symbols within the numeric mode thus established (which would include decimal points, commas and simple numeric fraction lines).

• An entire general fraction, enclosed in fraction indicators (Section 11.3).

• An entire radical expression, enclosed in radical indicators (Section 11.5).

• An arrow (Section 11.6).

• An arbitrary shape (Section 11.7).

• Any expression enclosed in matching pairs of round parentheses, square brackets or curly braces.

• Any expression enclosed in the braille grouping indicators.

If none of the foregoing apply, the item is the next individual symbol.


11.4.2

If a superscript or subscript appears within a grade 2 passage, it may need a grade 1 indicator.


11.4.3

When transcribing algebraic expressions involving superscripts, braille grouping symbols may be required.

Refer to: 11.4.1 for the definition of an item.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 7, Superscripts and Subscripts, (7.4, 7.5, 7.7, 7.8 and 7.9), for the treatment of superscripts or subscripts which are on multiple levels, left displaced, or directly above or below the item. Also for bars, dots, tildes etc that appear directly over or under items.


11.5.1

The expression inside the square root sign in print (the radicand) should be preceded by the open radical sign and followed by the close radical sign. The radicand itself may be any expression whatsoever, and may therefore contain radicals as well as other mathematical structures.

Note: If an open or close radical sign appears within a grade 2 passage, it may need a grade 1 indicator.


11.5.2

In print the radical index, if present, is printed above and to the left of the radical sign. This index is placed in braille as a superscript expression immediately following the opening radical symbol.


11.6.1

A simple arrow has a standard barbed tip at one end (like a v on its side, pointing away from the shaft). The shaft is straight and its length and thickness are not significant. These arrows are represented by an opening arrow indicator and the appropriate closing arrow indicator.

Arrows with non-standard shafts

Dots 25        single line shaft   

Dots 2356    double line shaft  

Dot 2            dotted line shaft  


11.6.2

All shaft symbols can be elongated by repetition, with one cell for a short shaft, two for a medium shaft and three for a long shaft. The shaft symbols are placed between the opening and closing arrow indicators.

Arrows with non-standard tips

Dots 1235 regular barb, full, in line of direction

Dots 2456 regular barb, full, counter to line of direction


11.6.3

If an arrow has unusual tips, decide which is the head before you choose the direction of your closing indicator.

Note: The tip(s) and shaft segment(s) are transcribed between the opening and closing indicators. These items are expressed in logical order, that is starting with the arrow tail and progressing towards the head, even if that runs counter to the physical order (as in the case of a left pointing arrow).


11.6.4

Less common arrows can also be indicated in braille.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 13, Arrows, for the treatment of:

• arrows with shafts which are diagonal, curved or dotted;

• arrows with tips which are half barbed, curved or straight; and

• equilibrium arrows that occur in Chemistry.


11.7.1

If a shape is followed by a space then no termination symbol is needed. If however the shape symbol is followed by punctuation, or unspaced from a following symbol, then the shape terminator must be used.

11.7.2

The description within transcriber-defined shapes should be a short series of initials or a single grade 1 word. They should not be used if the print symbol is already covered elsewhere in the code. The definitions of all shape symbols should be available to the reader in either a transcriber's note or on a special symbols page.

11.7.3

The physical enclosure indicator signals a combining of the item just prior (the outer symbol) with the item immediately following it (the inner symbol), where "item" is as defined in Section 11.4.1.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 14.3, of Shape and Composite Symbols, for superposition, horizontal juxtaposition and vertical juxtaposition of print symbols.

11.8.1

When a print grouping symbol stretches across several lines of print, use the appropriate enlarged grouping symbol in braille. Repeat the grouping symbols directly under each other on each line. Use blank lines before and after such arrangements for clarity. 

11.9.1

The general UEB principles on the choice of single letter, word or passage mode apply; in particular, a capital terminator should not be used within a two-letter chemical element symbol. Using single capital indicators for chemical formulae provides a uniform appearance to the braille; nevertheless, there may be a clear advantage in using capital passage mode in some cases. Letters representing chemical elements should never be contracted.

12.1

Follow the provisions of Sections 4.2 and 4.3, Letters and Their Modifiers for the treatment of ligatured letters and the macron.

12.2

Use uncontracted braille for Old English, that is, English written before about 1100.

12.3

In Middle English (c. 1100 to c. 1450) the use of contractions is optional. When contractions are used, have regard for spelling variations.

12.4

Use contracted braille for Early Modern English (c. 1450 to c. 1650) having regard for spelling variations.

13.1.1

A foreign language is any natural or artificial language in use now or in the past other than English. It may be written in Roman or nonRoman script. Any form of English transliterated in non-Roman script is also to be treated as foreign.

13.1.2

In determining whether a word or phrase is foreign or anglicised, consistency within a book is much more important than consistency between books. The publisher's (or where possible the author's) intention, if ascertainable, should be regarded as paramount. Attention should be paid to typography, since italics or (less frequently) bold or quotation marks are often used to distinguish words regarded as foreign from those regarded as anglicised. 

Refer to: 13.2, for the treatment of contractions in words, phrases or passages, regarded as foreign.

13.1.3

In doubtful cases the default position is to consider the word or phrase as foreign. Therefore titles (for example) in another language should be regarded as foreign, even though English and foreign titles are not differentiated. 

Note: If a standard dictionary is consulted to settle a question which cannot be resolved by reference to the book itself, care should be taken to ensure that the dictionary is actually purporting to answer the question with which the transcriber is confronted. It should also be remembered that even good dictionaries do not agree among themselves as to what words are to be regarded as foreign. 

Note: If using a dictionary, ensure that it is less than ten years old. Words or expressions that appear as main entries in the body of the dictionary are considered anglicised unless they are identified as foreign. Consult the usage guide for the dictionary to determine how foreign terms are identified, e.g. by a distinctive typeface or by a special print marker.

13.2.1

Except as provided for in the note below, do not use contractions in words, phrases or passages which are regarded as foreign, including any English words within the expression.

Note: It is permissible to disregard this rule provided that there are appropriate braille authority policies and guidelines in place which transcribers in your country are expected to follow to ensure that ambiguity is avoided.

13.2.2

Do not use grade 1 indicators for foreign material in uncontracted braille.

13.2.3

Use UEB contractions in words, phrases, proper names and personal titles which are regarded as anglicised. However, do not use a contraction that would unduly distort the pronunciation or structure of a word.

13.3.1

Greek: In the letter combination "sth", use the contractions "th" or "the" (representing the letter theta) rather than the contraction "st".

13.3.2

Scandinavian languages: Use the "ar" contraction in the letter combination "aar" (in which aa represents a with circle above)

13.3.3

Welsh: Do not use the contraction "ed" in the letter combination "edd" (dd represents a distinct letter). Similarly use "ff" contraction in the letter combination "off" rather than the contraction for "of".

13.4.1

There are two ways to represent accented letters in braille within a UEB context:

  •  by means of UEB signs for modifiers (13.5), or 
  •  by means of the foreign code signs used in braille production in the country where the language is spoken (13.6). 
Hybridisation of these two methods is to be avoided since UEB symbols and foreign code signs are different and may conflict.

13.5.1

Use UEB signs to represent accented letters, punctuation or Greek letters where it is judged likely that most readers will be unfamiliar with the foreign code signs, and where the nature of the material does not create a reasonable expectation that they should learn them. UEB signs should therefore be used:

  •  for occasional foreign words and phrases occurring in English context; 
  •  for longer foreign passages such as conversation occurring in English novels or in other English works regarded as primarily for leisure reading.

Refer to: Section 4, Letters and their modifiers, for the complete list of UEB signs for accents and Greek letters.

13.5.2

When UEB signs are used, do not use foreign code contractions or other signs from the foreign language code such as punctuation or indicators.

13.5.3

When UEB signs are used, do not use code switch indicators.

13.6.1

Use foreign code signs in the representation of foreign language material where there is substantial occurrence of the foreign language, as in:

  •  grammars and other instructional materials, 
  •  English commentaries on foreign works for study, 
  •  bilingual texts (whether set out in parallel or consecutively) such as official forms, opera libretti and other translations, and 
  •  any situation where significant knowledge of the foreign language is presupposed or being taught.

13.6.2

In a foreign language braille code, it is possible to have six categories of sign:
1. Signs representing the basic elements of the script (whether alphabet, syllabary, or other);
2. Signs representing accents (including indicators of breathing, tone, stress or quantity);
3. Punctuation signs and indicators;
4. Ancillary signs (including any signs liable to occur in literary contexts, which may or may not be more prevalent in technical material, such as the ampersand, asterisk, bullet, at sign, dagger, and the signs representing basic mathematical operations);
5. Technical signs, which are unlikely ever to appear in literary contexts;
6. Contractions.
Refer to: The most recent edition of World Braille Usage which lists by country signs used in categories (1) to (3).

13.6.3

When foreign code signs are used, do not use UEB contractions

13.6.4

When using foreign code signs for basic elements of the script and/or for accents, that is, categories (1) and (2) above, it is permissible though not required to use the foreign code signs for any of the other categories. Do not use a UEB sign that conflicts with an element in the foreign code. Also do not mix foreign code signs and the equivalent UEB signs for the same language in the same book.

13.6.5

List all foreign code signs used on a preliminary page.

13.6.6

Use foreign code contractions, i.e. category (6) above, only for a language written in Roman script which is also one of the official languages of the country from which the document originates or for which it is requested. However, in no case is the use of foreign code contractions mandatory.

13.7.1

Code switch indicators are used to enclose non-UEB material, in this case material using foreign code signs. Do not use UEB signs within code switch indicators.

13.7.2

When the nature and extent of the enclosed material can be clearly deduced from formatting or other contextual considerations, as when parallel texts in English and another language are set out in tabular form or when the foreign language is identified by a change of typeface, then code switch indicators may be omitted. 

13.7.3

If the main body of text is in a foreign language with occasional words or passages of English interspersed, e.g. by way of commentary or explanation, it is recommended that the function of the code switch indicators should be reversed, so that they enclose the UEB material. Explain this reversal in a transcriber's note.

13.8.1

For a literary work in which English and one or more other languages are interspersed freely with no typographical or other distinction, consider the braille codes of the languages involved and the issue of ambiguity in determining whether to use UEB contractions and how to represent accented letters. Do not mix UEB signs and foreign code signs for any particular print character or braille indicator. 

Note: The following example is a mix of English and Spanish. In this example, foreign code signs are used for accented letters since it is expected that readers would be familiar with them. Uncontracted braille is used to avoid ambiguity. UEB signs are used for punctuation and indicators.

14.1.1

The purpose of code switching is to indicate text which is transcribed in a braille code other than UEB. This may include:6 

• braille codes for languages other than English, such as Afrikaans, French, German, Spanish, Vietnamese 

• IPA Braille: An Updated Tactile Representation of the International Phonetic Alphabet [see 14.4] 

• New International Manual of Braille Music Notation [see 14.5]

• The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation [see 14.6] 

• other non-UEB braille codes for subjects such as mathematics, chemistry, computer science (assuming the transcriber has a special reason for switching, which in general is not necessary in UEB) 

• historical braille codes 

• proposed braille codes

14.2.1

When a text is to be read in hardcopy braille, do not use code switching indicators when the nature and extent of the non-UEB text can be determined by the context or format.

14.2.2

In situations where code switching indicators are not used, ensure that the format or position of the non-UEB material is clear to the reader. Often the text itself will make it obvious, for example: when the introduction of a bilingual dictionary explains that the entry word in French is followed by its pronunciation in IPA; when the text has two columns headed "Spanish" and "English"; or when the text states that the words in German are in bold. If the text does not explicitly draw attention to the non-UEB material, use a transcriber's note to explain the format or position of non-UEB braille codes.

14.2.3

Use code switching indicators for non-UEB material when writing braille that will be translated into print or where context and format cues are not obvious or meaningful, for example when a file will be read electronically. 

14.2.4

Use code switching indicators when the non-UEB braille would be ambiguous and when the nature and extent of the non-UEB text cannot be determined by the context or format.

14.2.5

When code switching indicators with identifiers are used, explain them either on a special symbols page or in a transcriber's note positioned before the affected material. [See 14.3.3.]

14.3.1

Place the non-UEB word indicator immediately preceding the symbols-sequence to which it applies. Its effect is terminated by the next space or by the next non-UEB word terminator. 

14.3.10

In the rare instance where the closing non-UEB passage indicator could realistically be misread as a symbol within the non-UEB code, instead use an opening non-UEB passage indicator augmented with the identifier "en" (for English) to indicate that UEB is resuming. If even this would be misread, the transcriber may devise a safe indicator to resume UEB.

14.3.2

Use the non-UEB passage indicators when there are three or more symbols-sequences in the non-UEB braille code. The effect of a nonUEB passage indicator continues until the closing non-UEB passage indicator.

14.3.3

When more than one non-UEB braille code is used in a particular text and it is not obvious which one is intended, modify the opening nonUEB passage indicator by augmenting it with an identifier. Before the dot 3, insert a short, mnemonic sequence of letters (no contractions) which is unique within the text. The transcriber determines the abbreviations used. Refer to ISO Standard 639-3 (on the website of SIL International, http://www-01.sil.org/ISO639-3/codes.asp) for a list of two- and three-letter designations for languages.

14.3.4

Identifiers are not used with the non-UEB word indicator. If an identifier is required, use the opening and closing non-UEB passage indicators, even if it is only for one symbols-sequence.

14.3.5

When more than one non-UEB braille code is used in a text, use a non-UEB indicator without an identifier only when its meaning is obvious or when it refers to the same code as the next previous nonUEB passage within the paragraph.

14.3.6

Close any non-UEB passage before opening another non-UEB passage. In other words, return to UEB first even if another non-UEB passage will start immediately.

14.3.7

When the non-UEB text is displayed on one or more lines separate from the UEB text, the opening and closing non-UEB passage indicators may each be placed on a line by itself.

14.3.8

Except in the previous instance, place non-UEB indicators at the exact point of change from UEB to non-UEB and back, unspaced from the symbols-sequence(s) which they precede or enclose. That is, do not insert spaces which are not already present in the text.

14.3.9

When a non-UEB code provides a symbol for switching out of that code, use that symbol in preference to the non-UEB word terminator or the closing non-UEB passage indicator.

14.4.1

Transcribe phonetic and phonemic material according to the provisions of IPA Braille: An Updated Tactile Representation of the International Phonetic Alphabet. The following sections provide for switching between UEB and IPA Braille.

14.4.2

Generally phonetic material within a text is identified in print by being enclosed in square brackets. Use the opening IPA bracket and closing IPA bracket. The effect of the opening IPA bracket is terminated only by the closing IPA bracket and not by a space.

14.4.3

Phonemic material within a text is normally enclosed in solidi (forward slashes) in print. Use the opening IPA slash and the closing IPA slash.

14.4.4

When IPA Braille and one other non-UEB braille code are used in a text, then non-UEB indicators can be used without identifiers for the other non-UEB braille code.

14.4.5

When print does not use square brackets or solidi (forward slashes) to identify IPA material, and when the nature and extent of the material cannot be determined by context or format, then use the general opening IPA indicator and the general IPA terminator to enclose the IPA material.

14.4.6

To temporarily switch from IPA Braille to UEB, use the general IPA terminator and return to IPA Braille with the general opening IPA indicator.

14.5.1

Transcribe music according to the provisions of New International Manual of Braille Music Notation. Follow its provisions to determine when indicators are needed to switch between UEB and music braille.

14.5.2

To switch from UEB to music braille when an indicator is necessary, leave a space and place the opening music indicator immediately before the musical notation.

14.5.3

Follow the provisions of New International Manual of Braille Music Notation for returning to UEB from music braille.

14.6.1

When technical material is transcribed according to the provisions of The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation within UEB text, the following sections provide for switching between UEB and Nemeth Code.

14.6.2

Place the opening Nemeth Code indicator followed by space before the sequence to which it applies. Its effect is terminated by the Nemeth Code terminator preceded by space. 

Note: The spaces required with the indicator and terminator do not represent spaces in print.

14.6.3

When the Nemeth Code text is displayed on one or more lines separate from the UEB text, the opening Nemeth Code indicator and the Nemeth Code terminator may each be placed on a line by itself.

15.1.1

Follow print for the foot sign and the caesura to mark the pauses in speech, as in scanning poetry.

15.1.2

When the line by line format of print (as in a poem) is changed to a linear format in braille, use the line indicator to mark the breaks between lines. The line indicator is unspaced from the preceding line and is followed by space before the following line.

15.2.1

Follow print when capitals, letter modifiers, change of typeface and/or symbols written on the line above are used to indicate stress either in the syllables of a word or in the words in a phrase, sentence or poem.

15.2.2

When print uses marks before or after a syllable to indicate it is stressed, use the primary and secondary stress signs and follow print placement. Describe what print sign is used on the symbols page or in a transcriber's note. 

Refer to: Section 3.11, General Symbols and Indicators, for the prime sign used for feet and minutes; and to Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 11 for the prime sign used in technical material.

15.3.1

Follow print when capitals and change of typeface are used to indicate tonal patterns of speech, as in texts for learners of English as a second language.

15.3.2

For other modes of indicating tone, including arrows and position, use the tone symbols in this section.

15.4.1

When scansion, stress and tone are shown with the International Phonetic Alphabet, use the most recent edition of IPA Braille: An Updated Tactile Representation of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

16.1.1

Use line mode when it is advantageous to draw "lines" using standard braille cells. Line mode enables regular text and diagrammatic lines to coexist without ambiguity, even within the same diagram. Refer to: Section 7, Punctuation, for the hyphen, dash, long dash and low line; Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 4, for the lines in spatial calculations and other technical diagrams; and Part 16.7, for the lines and bonds in structural formulae used in chemistry.

16.1.2

Use line mode for features such as lines separating column headings from items in the column and for horizontal lines before and after text set apart in boxes.

16.1.3

Do not use line mode when the attributes of the lines or their relationship with one another is important, such as in the study of geometry or the measurement of angles.

16.1.4

Do not use line mode when the diagram would be too complex to be read by touch.

16.1.5

Where the technology is available, it is often better to represent lines in diagrams with tactile graphics.

16.2.1

Use the horizontal line mode indicator to open any horizontal line.

16.2.2

Within horizontal line mode, use the appropriate horizontal line segments, corners and/or crossings to represent the line.

16.2.3

When an arrow is continuous with the line, use the arrow indicator \ to signal the beginning of the arrow. Use the symbols of arrow mode to represent the arrow. Upon completion of the arrow, horizontal line mode continues. Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 13, for rules on constructing arrows.

16.2.4

To represent distinctive types of lines, use any valid single-cell UEB symbol in addition to those indicated in 16.2.2 and excluding the arrow indicator \, the horizontal line mode terminator ' and space. In general, choose a symbol based on the physical shape of the line or feature (such as a junction) rather than the meaning of the symbol in other contexts.

16.2.5

Terminate horizontal line mode with a space or with the horizontal line mode terminator.

16.2.6

When the variant horizontal line segment is used, describe the line it represents on the special symbols page or in a transcriber's note.

16.3.1

Use the diagonal and vertical line segments to represent diagonal and vertical lines. Group one or more of the symbols together when necessary providing that each group is surrounded by spaces.

16.3.2

When a line drawing is in a text in contracted (grade 2) braille and when a string of two or more of the line-drawing characters < and > occur in the line drawing in any combination and surrounded by spaces, use grade 1 mode for the line drawing.

16.3.3

When a variant vertical or diagonal line segment is used, describe the line it represents on the special symbols page or in a transcriber's note.

16.4.1

When lines and other elements of a diagram, such as an arrow, are touching or continuous, position the corresponding braille characters adjacent to one another, horizontally, vertically or diagonally.

16.4.2

Even when the left end of a horizontal line forms a corner or crossing with a vertical or diagonal line, open the horizontal line with the horizontal line mode indicator.

16.4.3

Use a space before and after each vertical line segment, first variant vertical line segment, second variant vertical line segment or combination of such segments. When a vertical line or one of the variant vertical lines crosses a diagonal line or is too close to a diagonal line, use either of the diagonal line segments or variant diagonal line segments.

16.5.1

Use a sequence of guide dots to enable the reader to track across a gap in the braille, as in a table of contents or columned material. Use no less than two guide dots and leave at least one blank cell before and after the sequence.

2

2.3.1

Follow print when transcribing into braille, including accents, punctuation and capitalisation.

Note: This provision does not apply to print ornamentation as provided for in 2.3.2 below, or to parts of the braille text which are added by the transcriber, e.g. preliminary pages, page information lines, or transcriber's notes.

2.3.2

When transcribing, it is preferable to ignore print ornamentation which is present only to enhance the appearance of the publication and does not impart any useful information. Examples of print ornamentation include:

  • different typefaces or fonts for headings
  • the lowercase of letters with accents in a fully capitalised word
  • coloured type used for all example words
  • italics used for all variables in a text
  • small capitals font used for all Roman numerals

2.3.3

When a facsimile transcription is required, reproduce all aspects of print as fully as possible including ornamentation. Examples of circumstances when a facsimile transcription may be requested are:

  • when the reader is responsible for editing the text
  • when the reader is studying typography
  • when the reader is studying original manuscripts

2.3.4

In general, do not correct print errors.


2.4.1

The purpose of indicators is to change the meaning of the following braille characters or to change an aspect of the following text (e.g. to indicate capitals or a special typeface).


2.4.2

Many braille signs have more than one meaning.


2.4.3

The reader determines the meaning of a braille sign in several ways:

  • by its spacing (e.g. the vertical solid line segment)
  • by applying the Standing Alone rule (e.g. alphabetic wordsigns)
  • by its position in relation to other signs (e.g. opening nonspecific quotation mark, line indicator, final-letter groupsigns)
  • by the mode in effect (e.g. digits, arrow indicator)


2.4.4

Use an indicator to establish the mode which determines the meaning of the braille signs which follow.

Note: The list below gives the basic indicators and the modes which they set. It does not include indicators for extended modes (e.g. grade 1 word indicator and grade 1 passage indicator), indicators for variations (e.g. bold arrow indicator), subsidiary indicators (e.g. superposition indicator used in shape mode) or terminators.


2.4.5

Use an indicator to change an aspect of the text which follows.

Note: The list below gives the basic indicators of this type.


2.4.6

The list below gives other indicators.


2.4.7

A mode established by a UEB indicator may not extend through a switch to another braille code.


2.5.1

The use of contractions is disallowed by certain rules. These include:

  • Section 4, Letters and Their Modifiers - no contractions following a modifier, no contractions before or after a ligature indicator
  • Section 5, Grade 1 Mode - no contractions within grade 1 mode
  • Section 6, Numeric Mode - no contractions within grade 1 mode when set by a numeric indicator
  •  Section 12, Early Forms of English - no contractions in Old English.
  • In technical material these include: [See Guidelines for Technical Material:]
  • Part 1, General Principles - no contractions in strings of fully capitalised letters.

 • Part 14, Shape Symbols and Composite Symbols - no contractions in the description of a transcriber-defined shape.

• Part 16, Chemistry - no contractions in letters representing chemical elements.

• Part 17, Computer Notation - no contractions in a displayed computer program.




2.5.2

Uncontracted (grade 1) braille is different from grade 1 mode.


2.5.3

Grade 1 mode exists only when introduced by a grade 1 indicator or by a numeric indicator.


2.5.4

Uncontracted (grade 1) braille is a transcription option which may be selected for any number of reasons, including:

  • when the pronunciation or recognition of a word would be hindered: Section 10, Contractions
  • in Middle English: Section 12, Early Forms of English
  • in foreign words: Section 13, Foreign Language
  • in texts for readers who have not learned contracted braille
  • when the spelling of a word is featured, as in dictionary entries

Note: Braille authorities and production agencies may establish policies for the guidance of transcribers in the use of uncontracted (grade 1) braille.


2.5.5

Although contractions are not used in grade 1 mode, uncontracted (grade 1) braille may be employed without the use of grade 1 indicators.

Contracted (grade 2) braille

Note: The use of the contractions in contracted (grade 2) braille is covered in Section 10, Contractions.

Note: UEB contracted braille differs slightly from other forms of English contracted braille. See Section 1.3, Introduction, for basic signs found in other forms of English braille.

Other grades of braille

Note: Other grades of braille have been developed. One of these is grade 3 braille which contains several hundred contractions and is primarily for personal use. Another is grade 11/2 braille. Employing only 44 one-cell contractions, this was the official code of the United States from 1918 to 1932.




2.6.1

A letter or letters-sequence is considered to be "standing alone" if it is preceded and followed by a space, a hyphen or a dash. The dash may be of any length, i.e. the dash or the long dash.


2.6.2

A letter or letters-sequence is considered to be "standing alone" when the following common punctuation and indicator symbols intervene between the letter or letters-sequence and the preceding space, hyphen or dash:

  • opening parenthesis (round bracket), opening square bracket or opening   curly bracket (brace bracket)
  • opening quotation mark of any kind
  • nondirectional quotation mark of any kind
  • apostrophe [also see Section 2.6.4]
  • opening typeform indicator of any kind
  • capitals indicator of any kind
  • opening transcriber's note indicator
  • or any combination of these.








2.6.3

A letter or letters-sequence is considered to be "standing alone" when the following common punctuation and indicator symbols intervene between the letter or letters-sequence and the following space, hyphen or dash:

  • comma, semicolon, colon, full stop (period), ellipsis, exclamation mark or question mark
  • closing parenthesis (round bracket), closing square bracket or closing curly bracket (brace bracket)
  • closing quotation mark of any kind
  • nondirectional quotation mark of any kind
  • apostrophe [also see Section 2.6.4]
  • typeform terminator of any kind
  • capitals mode terminator
  • closing transcriber's note indicator
  • or any combination of these.


2.6.4

A word with an interior apostrophe is considered to be "standing alone" under the specific provisions of Section 10, Contractions, 10.1.2 (alphabetic wordsigns), 10.2.2 (strong wordsigns) and 10.9 (shortforms).


3

3.1.1

Follow print for the use of the ampersand.


3.10.1

Follow print for the use of currency signs.

Note: Some currencies are indicated by a letter or letters (e.g. "DM" for Deutsche Mark, "p" for pence, "R" for Rand).

Refer to: 3.26, for transcriber-defined symbols to represent currency signs with no UEB symbols.


3.11.1

Follow print for use of the degree sign and the prime signs.

Note: The minute may be shown in print by an apostrophe and the second by a nondirectional double quote. This usage can be followed in braille.


3.12.1

Follow print for the number used and the approximate placement of the ditto mark, that is, under the item that it refers to on the line above.


3.13.1

Use a dot locator for "mention" to set apart a braille symbol which is under discussion, as in a symbols list, a transcriber's note or in a publication about braille such as this one. Place the dot locator for "mention" before the braille symbol and unspaced from it.

When a dot locator for "mention" is used, do not list the dot numbers of the braille symbol.

Note: A braille symbol, e.g. a typeform indicator or a grade 1 indicator, preceded by the dot locator for "mention" does not have its normal effect on the following text.



3.14.1

 

Use a dot locator for "use" unspaced before a braille symbol to assure that it will be physically recognizable. A braille symbol which has only lower dots and which is isolated from other text may otherwise be misread. A braille symbol preceded by a dot locator for "use" retains its normal effect on text.

 





 



3.15.1

Follow print for the use of the prime sign.

Note: The foot may be shown in print by an apostrophe and the inch by a nondirectional double quote. This can be followed in braille.


3.16.1

Follow print for the use of the female (Venus) and male (Mars) signs.


3.17.1

Follow print spacing for use of the plus, equals, multiplication, division, minus, ratio, proportion, less-than and greater-than signs when used in non-technical material.


3.18.1

Follow print for the transcription of the natural, flat and sharp signs within UEB text.


3.18.2

When the natural, flat and sharp signs are found within musical notation, use the provisions of the New International Manual of Braille Music Notation for their transcription.


3.19.1

Follow print for use of the number sign.


3.2.1

Follow print for the use of arrows. In non-technical material, list the complete arrow symbol (without any grade 1 indicator) and its meaning on the symbols page or in a transcriber's note.

Note: The grade 1 indicator may be required before the arrow symbol to avoid it being misread.

Refer to: Section 11.6, Technical Material, and Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 13, for further information on arrows.


3.20.1

Follow print for use of the paragraph and section signs.


3.21.1

Follow print for use of the percent sign.


3.22.1

In non-technical material, list the complete shape symbol (without any grade 1 indicator) and its meaning on the symbols page or in a transcriber's note.

Note: A grade 1 indicator may need to be added before the symbol in the text of the document being transcribed.

Refer to: Section 11.7, Technical Material, and Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 14, for further information on shapes; and 3.26 for transcriber-defined symbols.


3.23.1

A space is a blank area separating words, letters, numbers and punctuation. Whenever there is some amount of space in print, including at the end of a line, there is a space in braille. If there is doubt as to whether a space is present in print, presume one is present. The amount of space present is not considered important.

Note: In print, formatting and other techniques can leave varying amounts of space. In braille, formatting rules may also require varying amounts of space, for example two spaces at the beginning of a paragraph and aligning text in a table.

Refer to: Section 6.6, Numeric Mode, for the special case of a space used as a separator within a number and to Section 11.2.2, Technical Material, for spacing in mathematics.


3.24.1

Indicate the subscript or superscript position when used in print. In grade 2 braille, use grade 1 mode for the subscript and the superscript indicators.

Refer to: Section 11.4, Technical Material, for superscripts and subscripts and to 3.4, for braille grouping indicators.


3.25.1

Refer to: Section 4.2, Letters and Their Modifiers, for the tilde accent above a letter.







3.26.1

Use a transcriber-defined symbol for any print symbol which has no UEB equivalent and which occurs so frequently in the text that the use of a transcriber-defined shape or composite symbol would be impractical. List each transcriber-defined symbol used and its meaning on the symbols page or in a transcriber's note.

Note: In grade 2 braille, use grade 1 mode for the first transcriber-defined print symbol.

Refer to: Section 4.2, Letters and Their Modifiers, for transcriber-defined modifiers and Section 9.5, Typeforms, for transcriber-defined typeform indicators.



3.27.1

Use the opening and closing transcriber's note indicators as unspaced enclosures around words of explanation added by the transcriber and embedded within the text. However, do not use transcriber's note indicators for notes on a separate preliminary page set up specifically to list general transcriber's notes.


3.3.1

Follow print for the use of the asterisk, dagger and double dagger, regardless of meaning.

Note: For example, the dagger may be used as a reference mark, or as the Latin or Christian cross to signify death or a member of the clergy.

Note: Usually the asterisk and sometimes the dagger and double dagger appear raised from the baseline in print. This is not considered the superscript position.


3.4.1

Use braille grouping indicators when necessary to ensure that the preceding braille symbol or indicator applies to all the symbols enclosed by the braille grouping indicators rather than just to the symbol immediately following.

Note: This includes a modifier which applies to more than one letter and a subscript or superscript indicator which applies to more than one "item".

Refer to: Section 4.2.5, Letters and Their Modifiers and Section 11.4, Technical Material.


3.5.1

Follow print for the use of the bullet.

Note: At times, other symbols may be used for a similar purpose.

Refer to: 3.22 for shapes and 3.26 for transcriber-defined symbols.


3.6.1

Follow print for the use of the caret.

Refer to: Section 4.2, Letters and Their Modifiers, for the circumflex accent above a letter.


3.7.1

Follow print for the use of the commercial at sign.


3.8.1

Follow print for the use of the copyright, registered and trademark signs. Usually the trademark sign appears raised from the baseline in print. This is not considered the superscript position.


3.9.1

Print uses crosses for a variety of purposes. Select the appropriate braille symbol based on the purpose of the cross.

Note: Use the letter "x" or "X" only when the cross has no mathematical or scientific meaning; for example: to represent a kiss.

Refer to: 3.3 for use of the dagger as a Latin or Christian cross (e.g. to signify death or a member of the clergy); and to 3.17 for the multiplication sign which is used to show dimensions, degree of magnification, and crosses between breeds of animals or between varieties of plants.


4

4.1.1

Follow print for the transcription of letters.

Refer to: Section 2.6, Terminology and General Rules, Section 5, Grade 1 Mode, Section 8, Capitalisation and Section 10, Contractions for more information.


4.2.1

Place a modifier before the letter it modifies in braille, irrespective of whether it appears above, below or overlaying the letter(s) in print. Whenever a transcriber-defined modifier is used, give the print symbol it represents in a transcriber's note or on a symbols page.


4.2.2

If an indicator is required immediately before a modified letter, place the indicator before the modifier.


4.2.3

Modifiers on letters do not terminate capitalised word mode.


4.2.4

A modified letter may not form part of a contraction.

Note: In words such as théâtre where the contraction for the is not used, the contraction for th can be used.


4.2.5

If a single modifier applies to more than one letter, enclose the modified letters in braille grouping indicators. Grade 1 indicators are not required for the braille grouping indicators since the modifier can not be followed by a contraction.


4.2.6

Where a modifier is shown in print without an associated letter, as in a dictionary entry or in instructional material, follow print.

Refer to: Sections 3.6 and 3.25, General Symbols and Indicators, for the caret and the tilde (swung dash); and Section 7.1, punctuation, for the solidus (forward slash) when these are separate characters rather than modifiers.


4.2.7

Use the modifiers listed above only in foreign language words and phrases in English context intended primarily for leisure reading, in English words or in anglicised words and phrases.

Where a significant knowledge of a foreign language is presupposed or is being taught, use signs from the indigenous foreign language braille code.

Refer to: Section 13, Foreign Language, for more guidance.


4.2.8

Use the modifiers in this section for linguistic accents and diacritics only and not for modifiers in mathematics or for symbols in computer programming even if their appearance is visually similar in print.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material.


4.3.1

Place the ligature indicator between two letters which are joined to each other in print. Various methods are used in print to join letters, including but not limited to cross bars between the letters, tie bars or slurs over or under the letters, and letters joined together and printed as one symbol. Describe the method used in a transcriber's note or on the symbols page.


4.3.2

The ligature indicator is considered a modifier. It does not terminate capitalised word mode and a letter joined to another by a ligature may not form part of a contraction.


4.3.3

An indicator before the first letter joined to another by a ligature applies only to the first letter. When an indicator is required for the second letter, place the indicator before the ligature indicator.


4.3.4

When a modifier is required for a letter joined to another by a ligature, place the modifier immediately before the letter to which it applies. When a single modifier applies to both letters, use braille grouping indicators.


4.3.5

Do not use the ligature indicator for the ae and oe diphthongs unless the letters are joined as ligatures in print.


4.3.6

Use the ligature indicator only when the ligature has meaning and not when it is merely an aspect of the print font being used.


4.4.1

Follow print for the transcription of these pronunciation symbols.


4.4.2


The eng and schwa are also symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet. When the symbols appear in phonetic material, use IPA Braille to transcribe the phonetic text.


4.5.1

Follow print for the transcription of Greek letters. Use the Greek letters listed above in English contexts or English technical materials.

4.5.2

Use signs from the Greek foreign language braille code for passages where a significant knowledge of Greek is presupposed or where the Greek language is being taught.

Refer to: Section 13, Foreign Language, for more guidance.

5

5.1.1

A grade 1 indicator is used to set grade 1 mode when the grade 1 meaning of a symbol could be misread as a contraction meaning or a numeric meaning.

5.1.2

The extent of grade 1 mode is determined by the grade 1 indicator in use.

5.10.1

When an expression in grade 1 mode would be equivalent to the same text in grade 2 mode because no contractions would occur, a grade 1 indicator may be used although it is not required.

5.11.1

In a work entirely in grade 1 braille (that is, using no contractions), grade 1 indicators are not used except as required for other reasons, e.g. for the lowercase letters a-j immediately following digits, and a question mark in an unusual position.

5.2.1

The grade 1 symbol indicator sets grade 1 mode for the next symbol. Note: A grade 1 symbol indicator is not required before the letters a, i and o, because they do not have a contraction meaning when they stand alone.

5.3.1

The grade 1 word indicator sets grade 1 mode for the next symbolssequence or the remainder of the current symbols-sequence.

5.3.2

The effect of a grade 1 word indicator is terminated by a space or a grade 1 terminator.

Refer to: 5.5, for the Grade 1 Terminator.

5.4.1

The grade 1 passage indicator sets grade 1 mode for the next passage.

5.4.2

A grade 1 passage is terminated by the grade 1 terminator.

5.4.3

To preserve the natural line-by-line arrangement of the text, e.g. in a computer program or a set of equations in mathematics, place the grade 1 passage indicator on a separate line above the grade 1 text and the grade 1 terminator on a separate line below the text. When this method is used, precede each indicator by the dot locator for

Refer to: Section 3.14, General Symbols and Indicators, for the dot locator for "use".


5.5.1

The grade 1 terminator usually follows immediately after the last affected symbols-sequence of a grade 1 passage.

5.5.2

Use the grade 1 terminator when it is necessary to terminate grade 1 mode before the end of a symbols-sequence.

5.6.1

Grade 1 mode is also set by the numeric indicator.

5.6.2

When grade 1 mode is set by the numeric indicator it is terminated by a space, hyphen, dash or grade 1 terminator.

Refer to: Section 6.5, Numeric Mode.

5.7.1

Grade 1 mode is required to prevent a letter from being misread as an alphabetic wordsign.

Refer to: Section 10.1, Contractions.

5.7.2

Grade 1 mode is required to prevent a letters-sequence from being misread as a shortform or as containing a shortform.

Refer to: Section 10.9, Contractions.

5.8.1

A grade 1 indicator precedes a capitalisation indicator.

5.9.1

As words are most easily recognised when presented in their familiar contracted form, minimise the number of switches between grades, the number of indicators required and the number of cells used.

5.9.2

Reduce the indicators within equations. When reading mathematical expressions, passage indicators are less intrusive than interior indicators.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 1.7.

6

6.1.1

Numeric indicators set numeric mode for the remainder of the symbols-sequence.

6.10.1

Avoid division of a number between lines unless considerable space is saved. If division is necessary use the appropriate line continuation indicator and observe the following rules.

6.10.2

When it is necessary to break a long number across lines, place the break in a logical place--at a numeric space, or after a comma which is being used as a separator--not between two digits.

6.10.3

When the division occurs after a separating comma, or between two digits in a number which comprises a large string of digits with no separators, use the one-cell line continuation indicator " at the end of the line.

6.10.4

When the division takes place at a numeric space, use the two-cell line continuation indicator "" at the end of the line.

6.10.5

Since the line continuation indicators do not terminate numeric mode a numeric indicator is not required in the next line.

6.2.1

The following symbols may occur in numeric mode:

  • the ten digits;
  • full stop (period);
  • comma;
  • the ten numeric space-digit symbols;
  • simple numeric fraction line; and
  • the two line continuation indicators.

Refer to: Section 11.3, Technical Material, for the definition of a simple fraction and the use of general fraction indicators.

6.3.1

A space or any symbol not listed in 6.2.1 terminates numeric mode.

6.4.1

When a full stop (period) is followed by a number, it precedes the numeric prefix # unless it is clear that it is a decimal point.

6.5.1

A numeric indicator also sets grade 1 mode. Grade 1 mode, when set by a numeric indicator, is terminated by a space, hyphen, dash or grade 1 terminator.

6.5.2

While grade 1 mode is in effect, a grade 1 indicator is not required unless a lowercase letter a-j follows a digit, full stop/period or comma.

6.5.3

While grade 1 mode is in effect, contractions may not follow a number.

6.5.4

Grade 1 mode is terminated by a hyphen or dash, thus allowing contractions to be used again. Therefore, a letter or letters that could read as a contraction will need the grade 1 indicator.

6.7.1

When transcribing dates, time, coinage, ordinal numbers, postal codes or telephone numbers: follow print punctuation and order of symbols.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 2, for more examples.

6.8.1

The spaced numeric indicator allows one or more spaces to intervene between the numeric prefix and the root that would normally follow immediately to form a digit or a decimal point or comma.

6.9.1

The numeric passage indicator sets numeric mode and grade 1 mode for all text until the terminator is reached.

6.9.2

The numeric terminator follows immediately after the last affected symbols-sequence, except as in 6.9.4 below.

6.9.3

Numeric indicators are not used in a numeric passage and any lowercase letter a-j is preceded by a grade 1 indicator.

6.9.4

To preserve the general format of the enclosed text the numeric passage indicator may be placed by itself on a line above and the terminator on a line below the text.

Note: A numeric passage may be useful in cases such as a long worked example in mathematics, a series of arithmetic exercises, or a table with mostly numeric content.

Refer to: Guidelines for Technical Material, Part 4, for spatial arithmetic examples illustrating the use of both the spaced numeric indicator and the numeric passage indicator.

7

7.1.1

Follow print for the use of punctuation except for the specific provisions in the Punctuation rules which follow.

7.1.2

Only one blank cell follows punctuation in braille even when print uses more space, e.g. at the end of a sentence.

7.1.3

Place a grade 1 symbol indicator before a punctuation mark which appears in a position where it would be read as a contraction.

Refer to: 7.6.4 for an opening nonspecific quotation mark.

7.1.4

A string of lower punctuation marks may be surrounded by space.

7.2.1

Follow print spacing of the dash. However, when the spacing in print is indeterminate or inconsistent, space the dash from adjacent words, unless it is clear that the dash indicates omission of part of a word.

7.2.2

When an unspaced dash indicates an omission, do not separate it from the remainder of the symbols-sequence. In all other cases, a dash may be separated from what precedes or follows it at the beginning or end of a braille line.

7.2.3

Regardless of the length of the character in print, use one low line (underscore) .- in braille for each print dash below the line of type which indicates a blank to be filled in.

Refer to: Section 9, Typeforms, for information about underlining.

7.2.5

Represent a spaced hyphen in print with a spaced hyphen in braille.

7.2.6

When print uses two adjacent hyphens as a substitute for a dash (e.g. in typing or email), it is permissible to use a dash in braille. Use two hyphens when it is clear that two hyphens are intended, e.g. to represent two missing letters in a word. When in doubt, use two hyphens.

7.3.1

Follow print for the number of dots used in the ellipsis. When spacing in print is indeterminate or inconsistent, space the ellipsis from adjacent words, unless it is clear that it indicates the omission of part of a word.

7.4.1

When division at a linebreak is necessary following the solidus (forward slash), do not insert a hyphen.

7.5.1

In the majority of cases, a question mark does not require a grade 1 symbol indicator; however, be mindful of the situations covered in Rules 7.5.2 to 7.5.4 below.

7.5.2

Place a grade 1 symbol indicator before a question mark which appears in a position where it would be read as the wordsign "his" or where it would be read as an opening one-cell (nonspecific) quotation mark.

7.5.3

Place a grade 1 symbol indicator before a question mark which is "standing alone".

7.5.4

Place a grade 1 symbol indicator before a question mark which follows a space, hyphen or dash. Any of the punctuation and indicator symbols listed in 2.6.2 of Section 2, Terminology and General Rules, may intervene between the space, hyphen or dash and the question mark.

7.6.2

For secondary or inner quotation marks (that is those other than the predominant quotation marks in the text), use the specific two-cell symbols.

7.6.3

A pair of opening and closing quotation marks should match. For example, when a specific opening quotation mark is required, then the specific closing symbol is also used.

7.6.4

When an opening nonspecific quotation mark would be read as the wordsign "his", use the appropriate specific quotation mark instead.

7.6.5

Use one-cell (nonspecific) quotation marks when apostrophes are used as the predominant quotation marks in print. Use specific single quotation marks when apostrophes are used as the secondary or inner quotation marks in print. However, when in doubt as to whether a mark is an apostrophe or a single quotation mark, treat it as an apostrophe.

7.6.7

If the opening one-cell (nonspecific) quotation mark appears in grade 1 mode, it will be read as a question mark. To avoid this, place the one-cell opening quotation mark before rather than after any grade 1 indicator. If this isn't possible, use the appropriate specific quotation mark.

7.7.1

Place the appropriate multi-line bracket symbol on each braille line, aligning the symbols vertically. Generally, material is top justified in braille even when it is centred vertically in print.

Refer to: Section 11.8, Technical Material, and Guidelines for Technical Material, for more information.

8

8.1.1

Follow print for the use of capital letters.

Note: The transcriber may reasonably reduce the use of capital letters in braille when they are used in print as a visual embellishment - such as for words written in capital letters at the beginning of paragraphs or chapters.

Refer to: Section 9.6, of Typeforms, for how to transcribe small capital letters when used in print as a distinctive typeform.

8.2.1

The extent of capitals mode is determined by the capitals indicator in use.

8.3.2

Place the prefix dot 6 before a contraction when only its first letter is capitalised.

8.3.3

Only a modifier or a ligature indicator can be positioned between a letter and its capitals prefix. Refer to: Sections 4.2 and 4.3, of Letters and Their Modifiers, for the list of symbols considered to be modifiers to letters.

8.4.1

The capitalised word indicator sets capitals mode for the next letterssequence or the remainder of the current letters-sequence.

8.4.2

The effect of a capitalised word indicator is terminated by a space, a single capital letter, a nonalphabetic symbol, or a capitals terminator, but not by a modifier or a ligature indicator.

8.4.3

A fully-capitalised hyphenated compound word is correctly capitalised if it is divided at the hyphen, at the end of the braille line. Note: This means that the new braille line will begin with the capitalised word indicator (which is already required) following the hyphen.

8.4.4

A hyphen inserted during transcription to indicate word division at the end of a braille line does not terminate capitals word mode.

8.5.1

The capitalised passage indicator sets capitals mode for the next passage

8.5.2

A passage is three or more symbols-sequences and it may include non-alphabetic symbols.

8.5.3

A capitalised passage is terminated by the capitals terminator immediately following the last affected symbols-sequence.

8.5.4

A capitalised letter or letters-sequence placed adjacent to the beginning or end of a capitalised passage is not necessarily considered to be part of the passage, especially if it is separated from the passage by a space or punctuation.

8.5.5

When transcribing a capitalised passage which extends over more than one text element (e.g. a series of paragraphs, or a numbered or bulleted list of points), each text element is preceded by the capitalised passage indicator and the capitals mode is terminated only at the end of the final text element.

8.5.6

When transcribing a capitalised passage which extends over more than one text element and where the text elements do not constitute a continuous passage (e.g.: a series of headings), each text element is capitalised separately.

8.5.7

A single heading is capitalised as a unit even if it extends over more than one braille line.

8.6.1

The capitals terminator is placed after the final capitalised letter either within or following the symbols-sequence.

8.6.2

The capitals terminator may precede or follow punctuation and other terminators but it is best that indicators and paired characters such as parentheses, square brackets and quotes be nested. That is, close punctuation and indicators in reverse order of opening.

8.6.3

If it is necessary to terminate the capitals mode before the end of a symbols-sequence, place the capitals terminator after the last affected letter of either capitals word mode or capitals passage mode.

8.7.1

The dot 6 prefix, the capitalised word indicator or the capitalised passage indicator is placed immediately before the first capitalised letter or modifier to that letter, such as a cedilla, grave accent or circumflex. Only a modifier or ligature indicator may come between the capitals indicator and the letter.

Refer to: Sections 4.2 and 4.3, of Letters and Their Modifiers, for the list of symbols considered to be modifiers to letters.

8.8.1

Choose the method which retains the usual braille form.

8.8.2

Choose the method which best conveys the meaning. In particular, choose a method that avoids the need for capital indicators or terminators within natural subunits of an expression.

Note: In the examples below such subunits are the chemical element Br in KBr, the abbreviation Sc in BSc or the word Ontario in TVOntario.

8.8.3

Choose the method which gives consistency throughout a single title.

8.9.1

When in print an accented letter in a fully capitalised word is shown in lowercase, the lowercase representation may be ignored in braille, except when facsimile transcription is required. Such practice should be explained in a transcriber's note.

9

9.1.1

Despite wide use of different typeforms in print, it is not always necessary to indicate them when transcribing into braille. For example, print will commonly use a distinctive typeface for headings. This usage is generally ignored in braille where formatting will distinguish the headings from the rest of text. Also the print practice of italicising all variables in technical material is ignored.

9.1.2

Typeform indicators are considered necessary in braille when the print change in typeform is significant because it indicates emphasis or shows distinction, e.g. foreign words in English text, titles within text, subject headings on paragraphs, silent thought, computer input distinguished from computer output, or the class of a variable in mathematics.

9.1.3

When it cannot be determined whether or not a change of typeform is significant, indicate the change.

9.2.1

A typeform symbol indicator sets the designated typeform for the next letter or symbol.

9.2.2

When a typeform symbol indicator precedes a contraction, only the first letter is affected.

9.2.3

If any letter of a contraction other than the first is to be preceded by a typeform symbol indicator, the contraction is not used.

9.3.1

A typeform word indicator sets the designated typeform for the next symbols-sequence or the remainder of the current symbols-sequence.

9.3.2

The effect of the typeform word indicator is terminated by space (but not by a numeric space or by space at the end of a braille line in a divided symbols-sequence).

Refer to: 9.4 for more information and examples.

9.4.1

A typeform passage indicator sets the designated typeform for the next passage.

9.4.2

A passage is three or more symbols-sequences.

9.4.3

A passage is terminated by the designated typeform terminator following the last affected symbol.

9.4.4

A typeform word indicator may also be terminated within a symbolssequence by the designated typeform terminator.

Refer to: 9.7, 9.8 and 9.9.

9.5.1

Use transcriber-defined typeform indicators for significant print typeform changes other than italics, boldface, underlining or script. This includes but is not limited to: different-sized type; coloured type; crossed-out type; sans serif font; and double, dotted, coloured or wavy underlining. List the transcriber-defined typeform indicator on the special symbols page or in a transcriber's note giving the print typeform it represents.

Refer to: 9.6 for discussion and examples of small capitals.

9.6.1

Although within a document all abbreviations and/or Roman numerals may be in small capitals, in braille these are best transcribed as capitals.

Refer to: Section 8, Capitalisation.

9.6.2

Print sometimes uses small capitals for emphasis or distinction. These can usually be recognized by the use of regular size capitals for the letters of the small capitals text which are capitalised. When the change in typeform is significant, use a transcriber-defined typeform indicator in braille.

9.7.1

It is preferred that typeform indicators and terminators and any paired characters such as parentheses, square brackets and quotes be nested; that is, close punctuation and indicators in reverse order of opening.

9.7.2

When it is clear in the print copy that punctuation is not included in a specific typeform and when a typeform terminator is required for other reasons, place the typeform terminator at the point where the typeform changes. When there is doubt, except for the hyphen, dash and ellipsis, consider the punctuation as being included in the typeform.

9.7.3

For better readability, ignore a change in typeform for closing punctuation when a typeform word indicator is used. Similarly, ignore a change in typeform for incidental punctuation within a passage. However, do not ignore the change when it is important for an understanding of the text, such as when typeforms are being studied.

9.8.1

The order for typeform indicators in braille is not prescribed. Therefore, when braille requires the use of two (or more) different typeform indicators for the same text, the indicators and terminators are best nested - meaning that the first typeform to be opened is the last typeform to be closed.

9.9.1

When transcribing a typeform passage which extends over more than one text element (e.g. a series of consecutive paragraphs), each text element is preceded by the typeform passage indicator and the typeform is terminated only at the point where the typeform changes.